Techniques used to Increase Motivation Among Employees
the two techniques used to increase motivation among employees in an organisation, i.e, (1) Financial Motivators, and (2) Non-Financial Motivators.
(1) Financial Motivators, and (2) Non-Financial Motivators.
A. Financial Motivators:
Financial motivators may be in the form of more wages and salaries, bonuses, profit-sharing, leave with pay, medical reimbursements, and company paid insurance or any of the other things that may be given to employees for performance. The economists and most managers consider money and financial incentives as important motivators. Behavioural scientists, on the other hand, tend to place them low, neither view is probably right.
Money is the most important to people who are young and are raising their families then to those who have aligned at a stage when money needs are less. Money needs go on changing from time to time. He may like to have a comfortable house later on. For some persons money remains to be a motivator and for others it may never be. According to Gellerman money is actually used to retain people in the organisation and not primarily to motivate them. To attract good persons an organisation will have to offer better wages.
Generally, persons engaged in same type of work are offered equal wages. It is seen as a practice that persons on comparable levels get the same or usually the same compensation. Under such circumstances money tends to be dulled as a motivator. Besides all this money can motivate people if their wages are related to their performance.
B. Non-Financial Motivators:
These motivators are in the nature of better status, recognition, participation, job security etc.
Some of these motivators are discussed here:
Every person wants his work to be recognized by his superiors. When he knows that his performance is known to his boss then he will try to improve it more and more. The recognition may be in the form of a word of praise, a pat on the back, a word of praise, a letter of appreciation, entry in annual confidential report etc.
There may also be awards, certificates plaque etc. The recognition may be for better output, saving the time, improving quality of products, suggestions for better ways of doing things etc. These types of recognitions will act as motivator. If the performance of persons is not recognized and everybody treated on the same footing then good persons will not like to put their best efforts.
Participation has been considered a good technique for motivation. It implies the physical and mental involvement of people in decision-making process. It satisfies ego and self-esteem of persons. They feel important when asked to made suggestions in their field of activity. There is no doubt that most of the people know the problems they will face and their possible solutions. Participation results in motivation and knowledge valuable for the enterprise success. Participation gives a sense of affiliation and accomplishment. It certainly acts as a motivator.
Participation should not mean that managers should abdicate their positions. They should encourage subordinates to participate in matters where they can help. Managers should listen various view-points and then to take decisions themselves.
It refers to a social status of a person and it satisfies egoistic needs. A management may create some status symbols in the organisation. This can be done by way of giving various facilities to the persons. These may be superior furniture, carpets on the flood, attachment of peons, personal assistant etc. To get these facilities a person will have to show a certain amount of performance. When a person achieves certain, facilities then he tries to get better status by working more. In this way status needs act as motivator.
In some organisations competition is used as a motivator. Various persons are given certain objectives and everybody tries to achieve them head of others. There may be praises, appreciation letters, financial incentives to those who reach the goals first. The competitions encourage persons to improve their performance.
5. Job Enrichment:
Job enrichment has been recognized as an important motivator by various researches. The job is made more important and challenging for the workers, may be given wide latitude in deciding about their work methods. The employees will also perform the management functions of planning and control so far as the work is concerned.
According to Heryberg, job enrichment would provide an opportunity for the employees’ psychological growth. The employee is given the dealings and quality standards he must meet. Within a framework he is given a free-hand to decide and perform the work. It brings more job satisfaction and high morale. So it is a recognized device of motivation.
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