Selection and Training of Employees in India and Pakistan
In India, the methods of recruitment, selection, and training of the workers are not all adopted? Many Indian entrepreneurs are not willing to incur expenses on training. They are yet to realize that such expenses eventually turn out to be investments.
The recruitment in many industrial enterprises is done through jobbers. They contact workers and bring them to factories and the jobbers get a commission. This system suffers from several limitations.
As far back as in 1929, the Royal Commission of Labour had criticised it and recommended for the appointment of a suitable qualified officer for the purpose. The recommendation of the Royal Commission was based on the fact that the jobbers used to exploit workers in various ways.
The jobbers are so cunning fellows that they always maintain a situation that does not permit the workers to come in direct contact with their employers. The situation is changing undoubtedly with the growth of organized labor unions.
Another method of recruitment followed in India is “Budli” method. Under this method, a large number of workers are not appointed permanently. They are ‘budli’ workers and they serve as casual workers who are called-on and called-off to work in factories.
They are usually kept out of employment continually for a considerable number of days as provided in the Industrial Disputes Act to prevent them from establishing their rights as permanent workers. This is done to safeguard the interests of the employer as he is not required to pay compensation to the retrenched workers.
Business concerns which are managed by personnel having progressive outlook and modern management training background do not resort to these anti-labor devices. They follow direct methods of recruitment. Employment exchanges provide an important source of recruitment in India, but they are not popular among private enterprises.
Started in 1945, Employment Exchanges have achieved meager success as liaison between prospective employers and prospective employees. The Employment Exchange (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act, 1959, makes it compulsory for employers usually employing 25 or more workers to notify their vacancies to an exchange.
Training of workers in India is far from satisfactory. Proper training to unskilled workers is seldom found. On-the-job training is, however, imparted to the skilled personnel. Apprentice training is also pursued in many concerns. To the posts of the skilled persons, generally the unskilled persons with experience, skill and efficiency are promoted.
The Central Training Institute for Instruction at Katni (M P.), established in 1948, provides training to instructors. The Apprentices Act, 1961, regulates the condition of apprentices in the industries. It is provided in the Act, that it is obligatory for the employers in the specified industries to engage the requisite number of apprentices in the designated trades for undergoing training.
Training standards have been prescribed by the Government in consultation with the Central Apprenticeship Council.
There is the Craftsmen’s Training Scheme for craftsmen’s training. The Central Staff Training and Research Institute at Calcutta provide training to officers and staff and conducts research in training techniques. The practice of organizing Company Information Courses or Training within Industry (T.W.I.) has found favor with some industrial concerns for supervisory training.
It has four different parts:
(a) Job Relations Training (JRT),
(b) Job Methods Training (JMT),
(c) Job Instruction Training (JIT) and
(d) Job Safety Training (JST)
For managerial training, several institutions have been set up in our country. Besides, various universities have started courses for degree and diploma in management and administration. The Central Government has set up Management Institutions in Calcutta, Bangalore and Ahmadabad and Luck-now.
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