Entrepreneurs are classified into different types based on different classifications as mentioned below:
Types of Entrepreneurs Based on the Type of Business:
1. Trading Entrepreneur:
As the name itself suggests, the trading entrepreneur undertakes the trading activities. They procure the finished products from the manufacturers and sell these to the customers directly or through a retailer. These serve as the middlemen as wholesalers, dealers, and retailers between the manufacturers and customers.
2. Manufacturing Entrepreneur:
The manufacturing entrepreneurs manufacture products. They identify the needs of the customers and, then, explore the resources and technology to be used to manufacture the products to satisfy the customers’ needs. In other words, the manufacturing entrepreneurs convert raw materials into finished products.
3. Agricultural Entrepreneur:
The entrepreneurs who undertake agricultural pursuits are called agricultural entrepreneurs. They cover a wide spectrum of agricultural activities like cultivation, marketing of agricultural produce, irrigation, mechanization, and technology.
Based on the Use of Technology:
1. Technical Entrepreneur:
The entrepreneurs who establish and run science and technology-based industries are called ‘technical entrepreneurs.’ Speaking alternatively, these are the entrepreneurs who make use of science and technology in their enterprises. Expectedly, they use new and innovative methods of production in their enterprises.
2. Non-Technical Entrepreneur:
Based on the use of technology, the entrepreneurs who are not technical entrepreneurs are non-technical entrepreneurs. The forte of their enterprises is not science and technology. They are concerned with the use of alternative and imitative methods of marketing and distribution strategies to make their business survive and thrive in the competitive market.
Based on Ownership:
1. Private Entrepreneur:
A private entrepreneur is one who as an individual sets up a business enterprise. He / she it’s the sole owner of the enterprise and bears the entire risk involved in it.
2. State Entrepreneur:
When the trading or industrial venture is undertaken by the State or the Government, it is called ‘state entrepreneur.’
3. Joint Entrepreneurs:
When a private entrepreneur and the Government jointly run a business enterprise, it is called ‘joint entrepreneurs.’
Based on Gender:
1. Men Entrepreneurs:
When business enterprises are owned, managed, and controlled by men, these are called ‘men entrepreneurs.’
2. Women Entrepreneurs:
Women entrepreneurs are defined as the enterprises owned and controlled by a woman or women having a minimum financial interest of 51 per cent of the capital and giving at least 51 per cent of employment generated in the enterprises to women.
Based on the Size of Enterprise:
1. Small-Scale Entrepreneur:
An entrepreneur who has made investment in plant and machinery up to Rs 1.00 crore is called ‘small-scale entrepreneur.’
2. Medium-Scale Entrepreneur:
The entrepreneur who has made investment in plant and machinery above Rs 1.00 crore but below Rs 5.00 crore is called ‘medium-scale entrepreneur.’
3. Large-Scale entrepreneur:
The entrepreneur who has made investment in plant and machinery more than Rs 5.00 crore is called ‘large-scale entrepreneur.’
Based on Clarence Danhof Classification:
Clarence Danhof (1949), on the basis of his study of the American Agriculture, classified entrepreneurs in the manner that at the initial stage of economic development, entrepreneurs have less initiative and drive and as economic development proceeds, they become more innovating and enthusiastic.
Based on this, he classified entrepreneurs into four types:
These are discussed in seriatim:
1. Innovating Entrepreneurs:
Innovating entrepreneurs are one who introduce new goods, inaugurate new method of production, discover new market and reorganise the enterprise. It is important to note that such entrepreneurs can work only when a certain level of development is already achieved, and people look forward to change and improvement.
2. Imitative Entrepreneurs:
These are characterised by readiness to adopt successful innovations inaugurated by innovating entrepreneurs. Imitative entrepreneurs do not innovate the changes themselves, they only imitate techniques and technology innovated by others. Such types of entrepreneurs are particularly suitable for the underdeveloped regions for bringing a mushroom drive of imitation of new combinations of factors of production already available in developed regions.
3. Fabian Entrepreneurs:
Fabian entrepreneurs are characterised by very great caution and skepticism in experimenting any change in their enterprises. They imitate only when it becomes perfectly clear that failure to do so would result in a loss of the relative position in the enterprise.
4. Drone Entrepreneurs:
These are characterised by a refusal to adopt opportunities to make changes in production formulae even at the cost of severely reduced returns relative to other like producers. Such entrepreneurs may even suffer from losses but they are not ready to make changes in their existing production methods.
Following are some more types of entrepreneurs listed by some other behavioural scientists:
1. Solo Operators:
These are the entrepreneurs who essentially work alone and, if needed at all, employ a few employees. In the beginning, most of the entrepreneurs start their enterprises like them.
2. Active Partners:
Active partners are those entrepreneurs who start/ carry on an enterprise as a joint venture. It is important that all of them actively participate in the operations of the business. Entrepreneurs who only contribute funds to the enterprise but do not actively participate in business activity are called simply ‘partners’.
Such entrepreneurs with their competence and inventiveness invent new products. Their basic interest lies in research and innovative activities.
These are the entrepreneurs who plunge into industry because of the challenges it presents. When one challenge seems to be met, they begin to look for new challenges.
These are those entrepreneurs who do not like to bear much risk. Hence, in order to reduce risk involved in setting up a new enterprise, they like to buy the ongoing one.
These entrepreneurs take business as an integral part to their life. Usually, the family enterprise and businesses which mainly depend on exercise of personal skill fall in this type/category of entrepreneurs.
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