7 Steps for Training of Employees
The steps are: 1. Determining Training Needs 2. Establishing Training Policies 3. Setting Goals and Objectives of Training 4. Preparing Training Budget 5. Deciding about the Training Venue. 6. Deciding about the Methods and Techniques to be Deployed in Training 7. Determining Methods of Evaluating Training.
Training Employees: Step # 1.
Determining Training Needs:
The first step in training is to determine what training, if any, is required. The main task in assessing the training needs of the new employees is to determine what the job entails and to break it down into subtasks, each of which is then taught to the new employee. Assessing the training needs of the current employees can be more complex since there is an added task to decide whether or not training is the solution.
According to Thayer & McGhee Model, training needs can be identified through the following types of analysis:
(a) Organisational Analysis:
It involves a study of the entire organisation in terms of its objectives, its resources, resource allocation and utilisation, growth potential and its environment. Its purpose is to determine where training emphasis should be placed within the organisation.
The organisational analysis consists of:
(i) Analysis of Objectives:
This is a study of short term and long term objectives and the strategies followed at various levels to meet these objectives. General objectives need to be translated into specific and operational targets. It is also necessary to continuously review and revise the objectives in the light of the changing environment.
(ii) Resource Utilisation Analysis:
How the various organisational resources viz. financial, physical and human are put to use is the main focus of this analysis. The contributions of various departments are also examined by establishing efficiency indices for each unit. These indices will help to determine the adequacy of specific work flows as well as the contribution of human resources.
(iii) Environmental Scanning:
In this analysis, the economic, social, political and technological environment of the organisation is examined. This is necessary to identify the environmental factors which the organisation can influence and the factors which it cannot control.
(iv) Organisational Climate Analysis:
The climate of an organisation reflects the employees’ attitudes. It also represents managements’ attitude towards employee development. Without adequate management support and appropriate supervisory styles, a training programme cannot be successful. Analysis of organisational climate can reveal its strengths and weaknesses also.
(b) Task or Role Analysis:
Task analysis is used to determine the training needs of employees who are new to their jobs. Particularly with lower level workers, it is common to hire inexperienced personnel and train them. Here the aim is to develop the skills and knowledge required for effective performance and so the training is usually based on task analysis.
This is a detailed study of the job to determine what specific skills, the job requires. Job descriptions and job specifications are helpful here. These list the job’s specific duties and skills and provide the basic reference point in determining the training required for performing the job.
(c) Manpower Analysis:
In manpower analysis, the persons to be trained and the changes required in the knowledge, skills and aptitudes of an employee are determined.
There are three issues to be resolved in this analysis:
(i) Whether the performance is satisfactory and training is required.
(ii) Whether the employee is capable of being trained and the specific areas in which training is needed.
(iii) Whether training will improve the employee’s performance on the job.
Other options for training such as modifications in the job or processes should also be looked into. Personal observation, performance reviews, supervisory reports, diagnostic tests help in collecting the required information and select particular training options that try to improve the performance of individual workers.
It needs to be emphasised that all training must be directed towards the satisfaction of the defined needs for the company as a whole, for specific functions or groups of employees or for individuals.
Training Employees: Step # 2.
Establishing Training Policies:
Company’s policies play a vital role in the formulation and designing of a training programme. Every organisation should have a well-established training policy. Such a policy represents the top management’s responsibility for the training of its employees and comprises rules and procedures governing the standard and scope of training and development.
Training Employees: Step # 3.
Setting Goals and Objectives of Training:
Once specific training needs have been determined and policies relating thereto established, a stage comes for setting goals and objectives of training for filling these needs. Broadly speaking, the immediate objectives of training are to help an employee to improve performance on his present job. Long range objectives are to guide the qualified man in preparation for positions involving greater responsibilities.
Major Types of Goals and Objectives:
(i) Operational Objectives:
Mainly concerned with efficiency in organisational working and outputs such as enhanced sales, reduced costs and improved productivity.
(ii) Performance Objectives:
Relate to individual performance in terms of both efficiency and quality, organisation’s effective performance within allocated funds while also keeping in view the fulfilment of corporate objectives and amount of benefits derived.
(iii) Instructional Objectives:
Pertain to the trainees’ grasp and applicability of the lessons or instructions as received during the learning process, which can generally be evaluated at the end of the training programme by some sort of objective tests.
(iv) Reaction Objectives:
These are primarily subjective in nature. Participants were very much alive to the learning situations give expression to their feelings and come out with reactions about the training programmes. This helps improving programme content and instructional methods.
(v) Personal Growth Objectives:
Indicative of stimulating feelings of self-confidence, self-competence, self-image and other aspects of self-realisation.
(vi) Innovation or Change Making Objectives:
These form a very important type of objectives which are primarily developmental in nature and have a large effect and return.
Training Employees: Step # 4.
Preparing Training Budget:
Preparation of training budget is specifically concerned with the allocation of funds to be provided for the training for carrying out the training activities as envisaged in the plan.
Training Employees: Step # 5.
Deciding About the Training Venue:
The decision about the training venue depends invariably on the type of training to be given. For ‘in company’ and ‘on the job’ training, the venue naturally is the plant itself. In the case of off-the job training and training through external sources, the venue has to be somewhat away from the trainees’ working environments. The venue of the training will be the place where the outside agency is located.
Training Employees: Step # 6.
Deciding About the Methods and Techniques to be Deployed in Training:
Broadly speaking, the training methods and techniques vary from a unorganised system of learning from working colleagues to more systematic methods of instruction through programmed texts. No wonder, training may range from highly specified instructions in the procedures to be adopted while performing a particular job, to very general instructions concerning economy and society.
Factors that generally matter in the selection or choice of a particular method or technique for training are:
(a) Depth of knowledge, nature of the skills called for in particular jobs to be filled.
(b) Background of the trainees for assessing their capacities and potential and ascertaining their aptitudes.
(c) Various kinds of operative problems confronted by the organisation or for the achievement of any other specific organisation objectives which compel them to bring in use particular methods and techniques.
(d) Consideration of facilities by way of cost, time, material, equipment’s etc., as available for particular training and for particular situation.
(e) Number of persons to be trained and developed.
In making use of these methods and techniques, it requires exercising of the best of discretion and judgement by the trainers or instructors, to deploy these methods, in accordance with the needs of the specific jobs, the individuals and the group, of course well balancing the advantages and disadvantages of a particular method or technique/methods or techniques and keeping in view any specific objectives of the organisation as well.
Training Employees: Step # 7.
Determining Methods of Evaluating Training:
Evaluating training is fundamentally concerned with the extent of achievement of objectives as set out in the training plan. It is the measurement of the effectiveness of performance after training and collecting useful feedback for future training.
The four methods successfully employed for the evaluation of training are:
(i) Judging and measuring reactions of participants in various aspects as outlined in the training programme.
(ii) Assessing and measuring how far the learning has been gainful and effective, that is, what exactly has been achieved by way of new knowledge, understanding and skills by the participants. This is done by means of tests.
(iii) Evaluating new and different attitudinal and behavioural changes in the performance of the job of the participants as observed by their supervisors themselves, their peers, and the colleagues or associates of the participants
(v) Measuring results or changes in terms of costs, grievances, quality and production.
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