definition and need of training of employees.
Definition of Training:
Training might be defined as the process of refining and increasing the skills and abilities of an individual, towards the best performance of a particular job; in which training is imparted.
Some popular definitions of training are given below:
(I) “Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job.” —Edwin B. Flippo
(2) “The term training is used to indicate the process by which the attitude, skills, and abilities of employees to perform specific jobs are increased;” —M.J. Jucious
Points of comment:
Certain note-worthy comments on the concept of training are as follows:
(i) Even if, an individual knows well as to how to perform a particular job; through training his skills and abilities could be further refined-to enable him to perform that job, in a still better manner. Training, in fact, makes for a perfect man.
(ii) Training, in organizational life, is a continuous process; at least, in a philosophical sense. That is to say, whenever a superior guides a subordinate in a particular manner towards performing a job or whenever the former issues a directive or instruction to the latter, in work-related matters; an idea of training is implicit in so guiding the subordinate.
Throughout the organizational life, such guidance by a superior to a subordinate is likely to be there. Hence, training is a continuous process.
(iii) Training aims at getting a desired change in the individual behaviour- towards the best attainment of common objectives.
Need/Advantages/Significance of Training:
The approach to discussion followed here, covers all the above-mentioned aspects of training i.e. its need, objectives, advantages, and significance in a consolidated manner. In fact, the need for training becomes its objectives. Further, when objectives of training are realized; such realization of objectives accounts for the advantages of training.
Again, the advantages of training are a reflection on its significance. Hence, the rationale for a consolidated approach to discussion.
The relevant factors/points, in the context of this discussion, are classified into two categories:
(1) From the viewpoint of the organization
(2) From the viewpoint of the employee.
Let us consider the major factors of need, objectives etc. comprised in the above two categories;
(1) From the Viewpoint of the Organization:
Following are important factors belonging to this category:
(i) Better organizational performance:
As a result of training imparted to employees, there is a manifold improvement in the organizational performance manifested in the following spheres:
1. More production, in lesser time
2. High-quality production
3. Lesser wastages of raw-materials etc.
4. Better handlings of machines, causing lesser depreciation
Point of comment:
The overall advantage of these improvements in organizational performance is that the enterprise is able to maximize its profits, in a rational and legitimate manner-through effecting maximum reduction, in the cost of production.
(ii) Appreciation of manpower asset:
Expenditure on training programmes, in an organization, is a sort of investment in the human asset. It is a permanent advantage to the organisation; which leads to an appreciation in the value of the human assets. In fact, through the training process, the potential of people is sought to be fully exploited; and a second line of competent personnel is gradually developed.
(iii) Betterment of recruitment and selection procedures:
The process of training brings to surface the deficiencies in personnel; which gives a feedback to management for effecting improvements in the recruitment and selection procedures, hitherto, followed by the organisation.
(iv) Organisational growth and development:
With trained employees at its disposal, an organisation can introduce or install new and better techniques of production. This leads to organizational growth and development, in the long- run.
(v) Minimisation of labour turnover:
Training leads to a minimization of labour turnover; and provides an organisation with a dedicated and stable labour force- so essential for successful management. This is so because; through training the motivation and morale of employees are up as evidenced by the adage that a bad workman quarrels with his tools’.
(vi) Better human relations:
Training helps in the development of better human relations in the organisation i.e. good superior-subordinate relationships and good relations among subordinates interest. Goods human relations develop as the fact of imparting training to employees gives them a feelings that they are being cared for by the management.
(vii) Wider span of management:
Trained employees require less attention of the supervisor; as they can attend to their jobs otherwise efficiently without requiring frequent consultations with the superior. As such, training facilitates a wider span of management, which leads to a reduction in the administration costs.
(viii) Reduction in industrial accidents:
With trained employees, the incidence of industrial accidents is minimized. Not only do employees gain out of it; but also the employer, whose liability for workmen compensation is reduced to the minimum.
(ix) Facility in co-ordination:
Training is an aid to co-ordination; as trained employees better appreciate one another’s viewpoint and better know how to link up their performance with those of others.
(x) Technical nature of the present-day-work environment:
The present-day-work environment in industrial enterprises is so technical that without training, employees may not be able to do justice with their jobs. This makes training a matter of practical necessity.
(2) From the Viewpoint of the Employee:
Some important factors belonging to this category are as follows:
Trained employees who do their work with dedication derive an intangible pleasure, technically called ‘job-satisfaction’. Job-satisfaction makes employees better and happy, in their day-to-day lives.
(xii) Chances for promotion/advancement:
Training opens the doors to promotion for employees. Having acquired better skills for performance through training, many trained employees become eligible for promotion
(xiii) Personality development:
Training helps employees build ‘self-confidence’ and leads to their personality development. ‘Self-confidence’ acquired in this manner, helps employees in all walks of life.
(xiv) High market value:
Training enhances the market value of employees. They can seek better avenues for their career development outside the organisation.
(xv) Feeling of homely environment:
Trained employees are easily able to adjust themselves to the work-situations. They can turn the formal organizational environment into an informal homely environment.